# Crawler¶

## Crawling the web¶

At this point we have all the pieces we need to build a web crawler; it’s time to bring them together.

First, from philosophy.ipynb, we have WikiFetcher, which we’ll use to download pages from Wikipedia while limiting requests to about one per second.

from urllib.request import urlopen
from bs4 import BeautifulSoup
from time import time, sleep

class WikiFetcher:
next_request_time = None
min_interval = 1  # second

def fetch_wikipedia(self, url):
self.sleep_if_needed()
fp = urlopen(url)
soup = BeautifulSoup(fp, 'html.parser')
return soup

def sleep_if_needed(self):
if self.next_request_time:
sleep_time = self.next_request_time - time()
if sleep_time > 0:
sleep(sleep_time)

self.next_request_time = time() + self.min_interval


Here’s an example:

fetcher = WikiFetcher()

url = 'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Python_(programming_language)'
soup = fetcher.fetch_wikipedia(url)


The result is a BeautifulSoup object that represents the document object model (DOM) of the page.

Note that WikiFetcher won’t work if url is a bytearray, because urlopen doesn’t work with bytearrays.

url = b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Python_(programming_language)'
# soup = fetcher.fetch_wikipedia(url)


To convert a bytearray to a string, you have to decode it.

url_str = url.decode()
soup = fetcher.fetch_wikipedia(url_str)


Usually when you call decode, you should specify which encoding to use. But in this case we know that the original strings were URLs, so the default encoding will work.

Wikipedia pages contain boilerplate content that we don’t want to index, so we’ll select the div element that contains the “body content” of the page.

root = soup.find(class_='mw-body-content')


## Finding words¶

From indexer.ipynb, we have the following function, which traverses the DOM and yields individual words, stripped of punctuation and converted to lowercase.

from bs4 import NavigableString
from string import whitespace, punctuation

def iterate_words(root):
for element in root.descendants:
if isinstance(element, NavigableString):
for word in element.string.split():
word = word.strip(whitespace + punctuation)
if word:
yield word.lower()


Here are the first words from the page we downloaded. They include keywords from the sidebar on the right side of the page, which are not part of the main text, but might be good to index anyway, since they indicate the topic of the page.

for i, word in enumerate(iterate_words(root)):
print(word)
if i > 200:
break

general-purpose
programming
language
mw-parser-output
infobox-3cols-child{margin:auto
python
object-oriented
1
procedural
imperative
functional
structured
reflective
designed
by
guido
van
rossum
developer
python
software
foundation
first
appeared
20
february
1991
30
years
ago
1991-02-20
2
stable
release
3.10.1
3
6
december
2021
14
days
ago
6
december
2021
preview
release
3.11.0a3
4
8
november
2021
42
days
ago
8
november
2021
typing
discipline
duck
dynamic
strong
typing
5
since
3.5
but
ignored
in
cpython
6
os
windows
linux/unix
macos
and
more
7
python
software
foundation
filename
extensions
py
pyi
pyc
pyd
pyo
prior
to
3.5
8
pyw
pyz
since
3.5
9
website
www
python
org
major
implementations
cpython
pypy
stackless
python
micropython
circuitpython
ironpython
jython
dialects
cython
rpython
starlark
10
influenced
by
abc
11
12
algol
68
13
apl
14
c
15
c
16
clu
17
dylan
18
19
icon
20
java
21
lisp
22
modula-3
16
perl
standard
ml
14
influenced
apache
groovy
boo
cobra
coffeescript
23
d
f
genie
24
go
javascript
25
26
julia
27
nim
ring
28
ruby
29
swift
30
python
programming
at
wikibooks
python
is
an
interpreted
high-level
general-purpose
programming
language
its
design
philosophy
emphasizes
code
with
its
use
of


## Redis¶

Let’s get Redis started.

import sys

if IN_COLAB:
!pip install redis-server
!/usr/local/lib/python*/dist-packages/redis_server/bin/redis-server --daemonize yes
else:
!redis-server --daemonize yes

340680:C 20 Dec 2021 15:03:31.520 # oO0OoO0OoO0Oo Redis is starting oO0OoO0OoO0Oo
340680:C 20 Dec 2021 15:03:31.520 # Redis version=5.0.3, bits=64, commit=00000000, modified=0, pid=340680, just started
340680:C 20 Dec 2021 15:03:31.520 # Configuration loaded


And make sure the Redis client is installed.

try:
import redis
except ImportError:
!pip install redis


We’ll make a Redis object that creates the connection to the Redis database.

import redis

r = redis.Redis()


If you have a Redis database running on a different machine, you can create a Redis object using the URL of the database, like this

url = 'redis://redistogo:example@dory.redistogo.com:10534/'
r = redis.Redis.from_url(url)


If your database contains values from previous exercises, or if you make a mistake and want to start over, you can use the following function to clear the database.

def clear_redis(r):
for key in r.keys():
r.delete(key)

# clear_redis(r)


## Indexing¶

From indexer.ipynb, here’s the function that counts the words on a page and adds the results to a Redis hash.

For each word, it creates or updates a hash in the database that maps from URLs to word counts. For example if the word python appears 428 times on a page, we could find the hash with key Index:python and add an entry that maps from the URL to the number 428.

from bs4 import BeautifulSoup
from collections import Counter

def redis_index(root, url):
counter = Counter(iterate_words(root))
for word, count in counter.items():
if count >= 3:
key = f'Index:{word}'
# print(key, count)
r.hset(key, url, count)


The previous version is likely to be slow because it makes many small requests to the database. We can speed it up using a pipeline object, like this:

def redis_index_pipeline(root, url):
counter = Counter(iterate_words(root))
p = r.pipeline(transaction=False)
for word, count in counter.items():
if count >= 3:
key = f'Index:{word}'
# print(key, count)
p.hset(key, url, count)
p.execute()


Let’s see which version is faster.

url = 'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Python_(programming_language)'
soup = fetcher.fetch_wikipedia(url)
root = soup.find(class_='mw-body-content')

%time redis_index(root, url)

CPU times: user 36.9 ms, sys: 11.8 ms, total: 48.8 ms
Wall time: 52.6 ms

%time redis_index_pipeline(root, url)

CPU times: user 26 ms, sys: 75 µs, total: 26.1 ms
Wall time: 25.1 ms


We can use hscan_iter to iterate the field-values pairs in the index for the word python, and print the URLs of the pages where this word appears and the number of times it appears on each page.

key = f'Index:python'

for page, count in r.hscan_iter(key):
print(page, count)

b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Python_(programming_language)' b'428'


Notice that when we get the number back, it’s a bytearray. If we want to work with it as a number, we have to convert back to int.

## Crawling¶

In philosophy.ipynb we wrote a simple crawler that always follows the first link.

from urllib.parse import urljoin

target = 'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Philosophy'

def get_to_philosophy(url):
visited = []

for i in range(20):
if url == target:
print(f'Got there in {i} steps!')
return visited

if url in visited:
else:
print(url)
visited.append(url)

soup = fetcher.fetch_wikipedia(url)
root = soup.find(class_='mw-body-content')

return visited

get_to_philosophy(url)

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Python_(programming_language)
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Programming_model

---------------------------------------------------------------------------
ValueError                                Traceback (most recent call last)
/tmp/ipykernel_336891/1601292495.py in <module>
----> 1 get_to_philosophy(url)

/tmp/ipykernel_336891/1250407340.py in get_to_philosophy(url)
12
13         if url in visited:
---> 14             raise ValueError(f'URL already visited {url}')
15         else:
16             print(url)



Now we want a crawler that runs a breadth-first search. Here’s the implementation of BFS from bfs.ipynb:

from collections import deque

def reachable_nodes_bfs(G, start):
seen = set()
queue = deque([start])
while queue:
node = queue.popleft()
if node not in seen:
neighbors = set(G[node]) - seen
queue.extend(neighbors)
return seen


Exercise: Write a function called crawl that takes a starting URL as a parameter, and an optional number of pages to crawl.

It should create a queue of URLs and work it’s way through the queue, indexing pages as it goes and adding new links to the queue.

For a first draft, I suggest using Python data structures to keep track of the queue and the set of URLs that have already been seen/indexed.

url = 'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Python_(programming_language)'
seen = crawl(url)

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Python_(programming_language)
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Object-oriented_programming
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Procedural_programming
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Imperative_programming
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Functional_programming
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Structured_programming
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reflective_programming
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Software_design

key = 'Index:the'
for page, count in r.hscan_iter(key):
print(page, count)

b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reflective_programming' b'53'
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Functional_programming' b'227'
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Object-oriented_programming' b'277'
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Procedural_programming' b'49'
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Imperative_programming' b'81'
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Structured_programming' b'161'
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Software_design' b'152'
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Python_(programming_language)' b'535'


For a second draft, consider storing these structures in Redis so they are persistent; that way, you can call crawl later and it will pick up from where it left off. Or you could have multiple crawlers running at the same time.

Hint: When you read a URL from Redis, you might have to decode it to make a string.

queue_key = 'Crawler:queue'

r.lpop(queue_key)

seen_key = 'Crawler:seen'

r.sismember(seen_key, 'anything')

False

url = 'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Object-oriented_programming'
crawl_persistent(url)

b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Object-oriented_programming'

r.smembers(seen_key)

{b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Object-oriented_programming'}

r.lrange(queue_key, 0, -1)

[b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Object-orientation',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_object-oriented_programming_languages',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Action_language',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Agent-oriented_programming',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Array_programming',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Automata-based_programming',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Concurrent_computing',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Relativistic_programming',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Data-driven_programming',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Declarative_programming',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Imperative_programming',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Functional_programming',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Functional_logic_programming',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Purely_functional_programming',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Logic_programming',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abductive_logic_programming',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Concurrent_logic_programming',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Functional_logic_programming',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Inductive_logic_programming',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Constraint_programming',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Constraint_logic_programming',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Concurrent_constraint_logic_programming',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dataflow_programming',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flow-based_programming',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reactive_programming',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Functional_reactive_programming',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ontology_language',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Differentiable_programming',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dynamic_programming_language',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Event-driven_programming',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Function-level_programming',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Value-level_programming',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tacit_programming',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Concatenative_programming_language',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Generic_programming',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Imperative_programming',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Declarative_programming',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Procedural_programming',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Polymorphic_code',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Intentional_programming',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Language-oriented_programming',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Domain-specific_language',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Literate_programming',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Natural-language_programming',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Metaprogramming',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Automatic_programming',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Inductive_programming',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reflective_programming',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Attribute-oriented_programming',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Macro_(computer_science)',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Template_metaprogramming',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Non-structured_programming',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Structured_programming',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Array_programming',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nondeterministic_programming',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Parallel_computing',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Process-oriented_programming',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Probabilistic_programming',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quantum_programming',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Set_theoretic_programming',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stack-oriented_programming',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Structured_programming',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Non-structured_programming',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Block_(programming)',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Structured_concurrency',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Actor_model',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Class-based_programming',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Concurrent_object-oriented_programming',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prototype-based_programming',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Separation_of_concerns',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aspect-oriented_programming',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Role-oriented_programming',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Subject-oriented_programming',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Recursion_(computer_science)',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Symbolic_programming',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Value-level_programming',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Function-level_programming',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Object_(computer_science)',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Data',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Field_(computer_science)',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Attribute_(computing)',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Method_(computer_science)',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/This_(computer_programming)',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Class-based_programming',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Instance_(computer_science)',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Class_(computer_science)',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Data_type',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Imperative_programming',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Procedural_programming',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Java_(programming_language)',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/C%2B%2B',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/C_Sharp_(programming_language)',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Python_(programming_language)',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/R_(programming_language)',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/PHP',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Visual_Basic.NET',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/JavaScript',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ruby_(programming_language)',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Perl',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SIMSCRIPT',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Object_Pascal',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Objective-C',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dart_(programming_language)',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Swift_(programming_language)',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scala_(programming_language)',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kotlin_(programming_language)',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Common_Lisp',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/MATLAB',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Smalltalk',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Unified_Modeling_Language',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Variable_(computer_science)',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Method_(computer_programming)',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/MIT',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Artificial_intelligence',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lisp_(programming_language)',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alan_Kay',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ivan_Sutherland',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ALGOL',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Simula',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Class_(computer_programming)',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Object_(computer_science)',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dynamic_binding_(computing)',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Physical_modelling',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Smalltalk',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Xerox_PARC',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alan_Kay',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dan_Ingalls',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dynamic_programming',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Interpreter_(computing)',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Compiler',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lisp_(programming_language)#Language_innovations',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lisp_(programming_language)#Object_systems',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lisp_machine',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flavors_(programming_language)',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Multiple_inheritance',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mixins',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Common_Lisp_Object_System',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Meta-object_protocol',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Intel_iAPX_432',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Linn_Products',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rekursiv',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Byte_Magazine',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Association_for_Computing_Machinery',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Objective-C',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ITT_Inc.',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bjarne_Stroustrup',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/C%2B%2B',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bertrand_Meyer',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eiffel_(programming_language)',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Object-Oriented_Software_Construction',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Design_by_Contract',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Tiobeindex.png',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/TIOBE_index',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Measuring_programming_language_popularity',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Java_(programming_language)',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Procedural_programming',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/C_(programming_language)',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/FoxPro',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/C%2B%2B',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Delphi_(programming_language)',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Citation_needed',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Graphical_user_interface',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cocoa_(software)',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mac_OS_X',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Objective-C',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Event-driven_programming',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ETH_Z%C3%BCrich',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Niklaus_Wirth',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Data_abstraction',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Modularity_(programming)',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Modula-2',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oberon_(programming_language)',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/BASIC',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fortran',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pascal_(programming_language)',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/COBOL',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Python_(programming_language)',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ruby_programming_language',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Java_(programming_language)',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sun_Microsystems',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/C_Sharp_(programming_language)',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Visual_Basic.NET',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/.NET_Framework',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Comparison_of_programming_languages_(object-oriented_programming)',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_object-oriented_programming_terms',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Variable_(computer_science)',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Data_type',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Integer_(computer_science)',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Character_(computing)',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Data_structures',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/String_(computer_science)',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_(abstract_data_type)',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hash_table',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pointer_(computer_programming)',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Subroutine',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Structured_programming',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Loop_(computing)',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Conditional_(computer_programming)',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Modular_programming',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Namespace',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Inheritance_(object-oriented_programming)',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Class-based_programming',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prototype-based_programming',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Class_(computer_science)',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Object_(computer_science)',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Instance_(computer_science)',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Method_(computer_science)',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Field_(computer_science)',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Class_variable',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Instance_variable',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Member_variable',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pointer_(computer_programming)',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abstraction_(computer_science)',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Constructor_(object-oriented_programming)',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Class-based_programming',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prototype-based_programming',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Trait_(computer_programming)',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mixin',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Class-based_programming',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prototype-based_programming',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Equivalence_class',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Delegation_(object-oriented_programming)',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Single_inheritance',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dynamic_dispatch',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abstract_data_type',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Multiple_dispatch',
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b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Software_deployment',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Software_design',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Software_maintenance',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Software_testing',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Systems_analysis',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Formal_methods',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Data_modeling',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Enterprise_architecture',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Functional_specification',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Modeling_language',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Software',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Software_archaeology',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Software_architecture',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Software_configuration_management',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Software_development_process',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Software_quality',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Software_quality_assurance',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Software_verification_and_validation',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Structured_analysis',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Essential_Systems_Analysis',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Agile_software_development',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aspect-oriented_programming',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ontology_(information_science)',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Service-oriented_architecture',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Systems_development_life_cycle',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Agile_software_development',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Enterprise_Unified_Process',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Executable_UML',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Incremental_build_model',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iterative_and_incremental_development',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Software_prototyping',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rapid_application_development',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Unified_Process',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scrum_(software_development)',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spiral_model',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/V-Model_(software_development)',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Waterfall_model',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Extreme_programming',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ISO/IEC_15504',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Capability_Maturity_Model_Integration',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Data_model',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Entity%E2%80%93relationship_model',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Function_model',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Information_model',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Metamodeling',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Object_model',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Systems_modeling',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/View_model',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IDEF',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Unified_Modeling_Language',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Universal_Systems_Language',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Systems_Modeling_Language',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Computer_science',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Computer_engineering',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Information_science',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Project_management',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Risk_management',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Systems_engineering',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Category:Software_engineering',
b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Help:Authority_control']

crawl_persistent()

b'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Object-orientation'


## Stop words¶

The most common English words are likely to appear on every page. They don’t indicate what the page is about, and we might not want to index them. Words that we don’t index are sometimes called stop words.

Once you have indexed a few pages, use the index to identify the words that have appeared the most times, totaled across all pages.

word_key = 'Index:the'
r.hvals(word_key)

[b'81', b'277', b'49', b'535', b'118', b'53', b'118', b'161', b'152', b'227']

sum(int(x) for x in r.hvals(word_key))

1771

counter = Counter()

for word_key in r.keys('Index*'):
total = sum(int(x) for x in r.hvals(word_key))
word = word_key.decode().split(':')[1]
counter[word] = total

counter.most_common(20)

[('the', 1771),
('of', 1138),
('and', 1044),
('a', 924),
('to', 797),
('in', 726),
('programming', 719),
('is', 528),
('python', 453),
('on', 426),
('from', 406),
('for', 404),
('as', 402),
('software', 331),
('languages', 331),
('that', 328),
('retrieved', 323),
('design', 319),
('with', 282),
('language', 270)]


The following cells use the results to make a Zipf plot, which shows counts versus “rank” on a log-log scale (the most common word has rank 1, the next most common has rank 2, and so on).

Zipf’s law asserts that the distribution of word frequencies follows a power law, which implies that the Zipf plot is approximately a straight line.

import numpy as np

res = []

for i, (word, count) in enumerate(counter.most_common()):
res.append((i+1, count))

rank, count = np.transpose(res)

import matplotlib.pyplot as plt

plt.plot(rank, count)
plt.xlabel('Rank')
plt.ylabel('Count')
plt.title('Zipf plot')
plt.xscale('log')
plt.yscale('log')


## Shutdown¶

If you are running this notebook on your own computer, you can use the following command to shut down the Redis server.

If you are running on Colab, it’s not really necessary: the Redis server will get shut down when the Colab runtime shuts down (and everything stored in it will disappear).

!killall redis-server


Data Structures and Information Retrieval in Python